However, in general, you should look for these signs during your regular skin self-exam:
- A new, possibly large, irregularly shaped, dark brownish spot with darker or black areas
- A simple mole that changes in color (particularly turning darker), size (growing), or texture (becoming firmer), and/or flakes or bleeds
- A suspicious change in an existing mole or spot
- A lesion with an irregular border and red, white, blue, gray, or bluish-black areas or spots
- Shiny, firm, dome-shaped bumps anywhere on the body
- Dark lesions under the fingernails or toenails, on the palms, soles, tips of fingers and toes, or on mucous membranes (the skin that lines the mouth, nose, vagina, and anus)
- A sore that doesn't heal within two weeks
Pictures of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma are available that may help you decide if what you are seeing is a harmless mole (or "nevus"), a pre-cancerous skin lesion, or something more serious that needs to be further analyzed by a professional.
Early Detection of Melanoma
The earlier melanoma is detected, the better the chance for successful treatment. Monthly self-examinations may help find it early. Often, the first sign of melanoma is a change in the size, shape, or color of an existing mole. It also may appear as a new or abnormal-looking mole. The "ABCDE" rule can be used to help remember what to watch for:
Asymmetry: The shape of half of the mole does not match the other.
Border: The edges are ragged, notched, or blurred.
Color: The color is often uneven. Shades of black, brown, and tan may be present. Areas of white, gray, red, or blue may also be seen.
Diameter: The diameter is usually larger than six millimeters (the size of a pencil eraser) or has grown in size.
Evolving: The mole has been changing in size, shape, color, appearance, or growing in an area of previously normal skin. Also, when melanoma develops in an existing mole, the texture of the mole may change and become hard, lumpy, or scaly. Although the skin may feel different and may itch, ooze, or bleed, melanoma usually does not cause pain.
Sometimes, the letter "F" is added, for "funny looking." This is meant to highlight that you should look for moles that do not resemble other moles on your body, or moles that are increasing in size or changing color.
If you see this happening to one of your moles, contact your doctor promptly. Often, a diagnosis can only accurately be made after a lesion is removed and examined (biopsied).
"Melanoma – Treatment Guidelines for Patients." National Comprehensive Cancer Network and the American Cancer Society. 21 July 2008.
"What You Need to Know about Skin Cancer." National Cancer Institute. July 2002. 21 July 2008.
"All About Skin Cancer – Melanoma." American Cancer Society. July 2008. 22 July 2008.